Space weather

Solar wind speed Solar wind magnetic fields Noon 10.7cm radio flux
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SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: 2022-08-15 06.30 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 15 0608 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Aug 15 0613 UTC
End Time: 2022 Aug 15 0613 UTC
Duration: 5 minutes
Peak Flux: 130 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 126 sfu

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-08-15 04.59 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3222
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 08 1645 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 3059 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-08-14 19.53 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 14 1914 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 591 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: 2022-08-14 18.04 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Aug 15: None (Below G1) Aug 16: None (Below G1) Aug 17: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-08-14 12.37 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 14 1204 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 629 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-08-14 05.36 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3221
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 08 1645 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 6243 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-08-13 05.00 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3220
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 08 1645 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 3309 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-08-12 05.00 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3219
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 08 1645 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 14596 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-11 17.40 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4071
Valid From: 2022 Aug 11 1139 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Aug 12 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-08-11 17.20 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 11 1720 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 11 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-11 17.20 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4070
Valid From: 2022 Aug 11 1139 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Aug 11 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-08-11 16.07 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Aug 11 1605 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-11 11.39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 11 1139 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 11 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-08-11 04.59 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3218
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 08 1645 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 6675 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-10 19.54 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 10 1952 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 11 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-10 05.07 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 10 0506 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 10 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-08-10 05.00 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3217
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 08 1645 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 7177 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-09 14.05 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4066
Valid From: 2022 Aug 07 0752 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Aug 09 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-08-09 08.22 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3216
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 08 1645 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2522 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-08-09 04.01 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 09 0400 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 09 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-09 04.00 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4065
Valid From: 2022 Aug 07 0752 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Aug 09 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-08 17.40 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4064
Valid From: 2022 Aug 07 0752 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Aug 09 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-08-08 17.11 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Aug 08 1645 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-08-08 08.39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1656
Valid From: 2022 Aug 07 1428 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Aug 08 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-08 08.39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4063
Valid From: 2022 Aug 07 0752 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Aug 08 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-08-08 08.30 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Aug 08 0828 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0600-0900 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-08-08 06.07 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Aug 08 0559 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-08-08 01.35 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Aug 08 0133 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Issued: 2022-08-08 00.00 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2022 Aug 07 2359 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-08-07 23.49 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1655
Valid From: 2022 Aug 07 1428 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Aug 08 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-07 23.49 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4062
Valid From: 2022 Aug 07 0752 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Aug 08 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: 2022-08-07 23.49 UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 07 2350 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 08 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-08-07 22.24 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Aug 07 2222 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: 2022-08-07 21.19 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Aug 08: G1 (Minor) Aug 09: None (Below G1) Aug 10: None (Below G1)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-07 17.48 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4061
Valid From: 2022 Aug 07 0752 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Aug 08 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-08-07 17.48 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1654
Valid From: 2022 Aug 07 1428 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Aug 07 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-08-07 14.29 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 07 1428 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 07 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-08-07 12.03 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Aug 07 1200 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-07 07.52 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 07 0752 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 07 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-08-07 03.12 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 07 0226 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 477 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-08-05 07.44 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 05 0657 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 1300 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-08-03 18.09 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 03 1705 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 163 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-07-31 16.01 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 31 1601 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-07-31 15.58 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jul 31 1558 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jul 31 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-07-31 15.41 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 31 1525 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: 2022-07-29 10.15 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Jul 29 0619 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Jul 29 0619 UTC
End Time: 2022 Jul 29 0619 UTC
Duration: 1 minutes
Peak Flux: 130 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 93 sfu

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-07-28 15.32 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3266
Begin Time: 2022 Jul 25 1525 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1277 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-07-27 15.47 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3265
Begin Time: 2022 Jul 25 1525 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1229 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-07-26 14.24 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3264
Begin Time: 2022 Jul 25 1525 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1248 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CANCEL WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-07-26 07.40 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Cancel Serial Number: 4146
Original Issue Time: 2022 Jul 26 0241 UTC

Comment: Conditions no longer warrant this warning

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-07-26 02.42 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 26 0239 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-07-26 02.41 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jul 26 0239 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jul 26 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-07-25 15.42 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 25 1525 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: 2022-07-23 04.56 UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jul 23 0455 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jul 23 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-07-23 04.07 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 23 0359 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-07-23 03.38 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jul 23 0336 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jul 23 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-07-23 03.37 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 23 0330 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse
Issued: 2022-07-23 03.12 UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse
Observed: 2022 Jul 23 0259 UTC
Deviation: 103 nT
Station: MEA

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-07-23 02.43 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jul 23 0242 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jul 23 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Issued: 2022-07-23 02.42 UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Valid From: 2022 Jul 23 0245 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jul 23 0345 UTC
IP Shock Passage Observed: 2022 Jul 23 0229 UTC

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-07-22 05.06 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4143
Valid From: 2022 Jul 21 1107 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jul 22 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-07-21 23.39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4142
Valid From: 2022 Jul 21 1107 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jul 22 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted
Issued: 2022-07-21 21.56 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jul 22: G1 (Minor) Jul 23: G2 (Moderate) Jul 24: None (Below G1)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-07-21 20.57 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 21 2057 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-07-21 17.49 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 21 1725 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-07-21 17.05 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 21 1704 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-07-21 16.49 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jul 21 1649 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jul 21 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-07-21 16.35 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 21 1634 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-07-21 15.37 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4141
Valid From: 2022 Jul 21 1107 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jul 22 0000 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-07-21 11.07 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jul 21 1107 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jul 21 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-07-21 08.02 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3261
Begin Time: 2022 Jul 20 0935 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1916 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-07-21 02.03 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jul 21 0121 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 1063 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-07-21 02.02 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jul 21 0128 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: 2022-07-20 18.21 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jul 21: G1 (Minor) Jul 22: G1 (Minor) Jul 23: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-07-20 09.54 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 20 0935 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-07-19 20.19 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4139
Valid From: 2022 Jul 19 0439 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jul 20 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: 2022-07-19 14.01 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jul 20: None (Below G1) Jul 21: G1 (Minor) Jul 22: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-07-19 11.27 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1681
Valid From: 2022 Jul 19 0651 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jul 19 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-07-19 11.27 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4138
Valid From: 2022 Jul 19 0439 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jul 19 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-07-19 09.01 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 19 0859 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0600-0900 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-07-19 06.56 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4137
Valid From: 2022 Jul 19 0439 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jul 19 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-07-19 06.52 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jul 19 0651 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jul 19 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-07-19 05.59 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 19 0559 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-07-19 04.39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jul 19 0439 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jul 19 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-07-18 21.29 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jul 18 2127 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jul 19 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: 2022-07-18 17.56 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jul 19: None (Below G1) Jul 20: None (Below G1) Jul 21: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-07-18 05.00 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3259
Begin Time: 2022 Jul 16 1025 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 5273 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-07-17 05.00 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3258
Begin Time: 2022 Jul 16 1025 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 3342 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-07-16 10.41 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jul 16 1025 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

Table

Date Radio flux 10.7 cm SESC Sunspot number Sunspot area 10E-6 New regions GOES15 X-ray Bkgd flux Flares
X-ray Optical
C M X S 1 2 3
Jul 16, 2022 176 153 1510 1 * 6 2 0 24 3 0 0
Jul 17, 2022 166 166 1660 1 * 8 0 0 11 1 0 0
Jul 18, 2022 152 125 740 0 * 3 0 0 5 0 0 0
Jul 19, 2022 144 114 570 1 * 7 0 0 10 0 0 0
Jul 20, 2022 133 129 560 2 * 6 0 0 3 0 0 0
Jul 21, 2022 122 124 530 1 * 9 0 0 8 0 0 0
Jul 22, 2022 114 107 430 0 * 3 0 0 5 0 0 0
Jul 23, 2022 111 96 360 0 * 8 0 0 6 0 0 0
Jul 24, 2022 107 80 240 0 * 2 0 0 4 0 0 0
Jul 25, 2022 102 100 280 1 * 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 26, 2022 99 78 290 0 * 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
Jul 27, 2022 98 52 210 0 * 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 28, 2022 93 50 130 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 29, 2022 93 40 180 0 * 1 0 0 9 0 0 0
Jul 30, 2022 91 27 170 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 31, 2022 94 39 180 1 * 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Aug 01, 2022 95 32 120 1 * 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
Aug 02, 2022 98 31 280 1 * 2 0 0 4 0 0 0
Aug 03, 2022 100 37 300 0 * 2 0 0 0 1 0 0
Aug 04, 2022 109 52 300 1 * 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Aug 05, 2022 114 69 510 2 * 4 0 0 4 0 0 0
Aug 06, 2022 116 69 500 0 * 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
Aug 07, 2022 116 87 510 2 * 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Aug 08, 2022 113 63 520 0 * 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Aug 09, 2022 109 58 390 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Aug 10, 2022 108 60 390 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Aug 11, 2022 115 58 440 0 * 3 0 0 1 0 0 0
Aug 12, 2022 120 97 540 2 * 6 0 0 11 0 0 0
Aug 13, 2022 124 116 790 1 * 17 0 0 8 0 0 0
Aug 14, 2022 126 104 670 0 * 11 0 0 10 0 0 0
Average/Total 115 80 477 21 104 2 0 132 5 0 0

Summary graph

Flares

Solar wind

Solar Wind

The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.

The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×10e6 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×10e5 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity. Often called the F10.7 index, it is one of the longest running records of solar activity. The F10.7 radio emissions originates high in the chromosphere and low in the corona of the solar atmosphere. The F10.7 correlates well with the sunspot number as well as a number of UltraViolet (UV) and visible solar irradiance records. Reported in “solar flux units”, (s.f.u.), the F10.7 can vary from below 50 s.f.u., to above 300 s.f.u., over the course of a solar cycle.

Flares

Flares

A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 10e25 joules of energy. They are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection. The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.

Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvin, while the electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established.

The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.

Classification

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square metre, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometre X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft.

Classification Peak Flux Range at 100-800 picometer
W/m2
A < 10e-7
B 10e-7 to 10e-6
C 10e-6 to 10e-5
M 10e-5 to 10e-4
X 10e-4 to 10e-3
Z > 10e-3

An earlier flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below. (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)

Classification Corrected area
(millionths of hemisphere)
S < 100
1 100 - 250
2 250 - 600
3 600 - 1200
4 > 1200

Sunspot number

Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere. Sunspots usually appear in pairs, with pair members of opposite magnetic polarity. The number of sunspots varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.

Sunspot populations quickly rise and more slowly fall on an irregular cycle of 11 years, although significant variations in the number of sunspots attending the 11-year period are known over longer spans of time. For example, from 1900 to the 1960s, the solar maxima trend of sunspot count has been upward; from the 1960s to the present, it has diminished somewhat. Over the last decades the Sun has had a markedly high average level of sunspot activity; it was last similarly active over 8,000 years ago.

The number of sunspots correlates with the intensity of solar radiation over the period since 1979, when satellite measurements of absolute radiative flux became available. Since sunspots are darker than the surrounding photosphere it might be expected that more sunspots would lead to less solar radiation and a decreased solar constant. However, the surrounding margins of sunspots are brighter than the average, and so are hotter; overall, more sunspots increase the Sun's solar constant or brightness. The variation caused by the sunspot cycle to solar output is relatively small, on the order of 0.1% of the solar constant (a peak-to-trough range of 1.3 W/m2 compared to 1366 W/m2 for the average solar constant).

K-indices



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Data


Estimated Planetary

Estimated Planetary

Date A K-indices (UTC)
0h 3h 6h 9h 12h 15h 18h 21h
Jul 17, 2022 5 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1
Jul 18, 2022 8 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3
Jul 19, 2022 26 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4
Jul 20, 2022 7 2 3 1 2 2 1 1 2
Jul 21, 2022 22 2 1 2 3 3 5 5 4
Jul 22, 2022 11 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 3
Jul 23, 2022 17 3 5 4 2 2 1 1 3
Jul 24, 2022 9 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2
Jul 25, 2022 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2
Jul 26, 2022 8 4 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
Jul 27, 2022 9 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3
Jul 28, 2022 7 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 1
Jul 29, 2022 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Jul 30, 2022 7 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 3
Jul 31, 2022 11 2 2 2 2 3 4 2 3
Aug 01, 2022 8 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 2
Aug 02, 2022 9 2 2 3 2 1 2 3 3
Aug 03, 2022 8 3 3 2 2 1 2 2 2
Aug 04, 2022 6 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
Aug 05, 2022 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 2
Aug 06, 2022 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Aug 07, 2022 24 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 6
Aug 08, 2022 31 5 5 5 4 3 3 4 4
Aug 09, 2022 19 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 2
Aug 10, 2022 11 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 3
Aug 11, 2022 16 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 3
Aug 12, 2022 7 3 1 2 3 2 1 1 1
Aug 13, 2022 10 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2
Aug 14, 2022 7 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1
Aug 15, 2022 5 1 2

Middle Latitude

Date A K-indices
Jul 17, 2022 6 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1
Jul 18, 2022 10 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 4
Jul 19, 2022 19 3 4 4 3 4 3 2 3
Jul 20, 2022 7 2 3 1 2 2 2 1 2
Jul 21, 2022 14 2 1 1 3 3 4 4 3
Jul 22, 2022 11 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 3
Jul 23, 2022 15 3 5 3 3 2 2 2 2
Jul 24, 2022 9 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2
Jul 25, 2022 8 3 2 0 2 3 2 1 2
Jul 26, 2022 7 3 2 0 2 2 2 2 2
Jul 27, 2022 9 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3
Jul 28, 2022 9 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 1
Jul 29, 2022 6 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 2
Jul 30, 2022 8 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 3
Jul 31, 2022 12 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 3
Aug 01, 2022 8 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 2
Aug 02, 2022 10 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 3
Aug 03, 2022 7 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 2
Aug 04, 2022 7 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 1
Aug 05, 2022 7 3 2 1 2 2 2 1 1
Aug 06, 2022 5 1 0 0 2 2 2 2 2
Aug 07, 2022 20 1 2 3 4 4 3 3 5
Aug 08, 2022 21 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3
Aug 09, 2022 15 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 2
Aug 10, 2022 10 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 2
Aug 11, 2022 12 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 3
Aug 12, 2022 6 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1
Aug 13, 2022 10 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2
Aug 14, 2022 9 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 0
Aug 15, 2022 1 1

High Latitude

Date A K-indices
Jul 17, 2022 2 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 0
Jul 18, 2022 18 0 1 3 5 5 1 4 0
Jul 19, 2022 43 1 4 6 5 5 6 5 2
Jul 20, 2022 12 3 2 1 4 4 2 1 2
Jul 21, 2022 25 1 1 2 5 4 6 3 3
Jul 22, 2022 20 4 3 5 5 2 2 1 2
Jul 23, 2022 26 3 5 5 4 5 2 2 2
Jul 24, 2022 15 3 3 3 4 3 3 2 2
Jul 25, 2022 4 2 2 1 0 1 1 1 1
Jul 26, 2022 6 2 3 0 2 2 1 1 2
Jul 27, 2022 10 2 3 2 3 3 2 1 2
Jul 28, 2022 10 1 3 3 1 4 2 1 1
Jul 29, 2022 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0
Jul 30, 2022 6 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1
Jul 31, 2022 11 2 2 2 0 4 4 1 2
Aug 01, 2022 12 2 3 2 4 4 2 1 1
Aug 02, 2022 11 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 2
Aug 03, 2022 9 2 3 3 3 2 2 1 1
Aug 04, 2022 4 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
Aug 05, 2022 3 2 2 0 0 1 1 0 1
Aug 06, 2022 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Aug 07, 2022 42 0 2 4 6 6 6 3 5
Aug 08, 2022 48 5 5 6 6 5 5 3 3
Aug 09, 2022 45 3 4 6 6 6 5 3 3
Aug 10, 2022 23 3 3 2 5 5 3 4 2
Aug 11, 2022 57 2 3 3 7 7 6 5 2
Aug 12, 2022 18 2 1 3 6 4 2 0 1
Aug 13, 2022 18 1 2 2 4 4 5 3 2
Aug 14, 2022 6 3 3 2 1 1 0 1 0
Aug 15, 2022 1 1

About

The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval. The label K comes from the German word Kennziffer meaning “characteristic digit”. The K-index was introduced by Julius Bartels in 1938.

The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers:

  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Meanook, Canada
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • Hartland, UK
  • Wingst, Germany
  • Niemegk, Germany
  • Canberra, Australia

These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), the British Geological Survey, the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and Geoscience Australia. Important magnetometer observations are also contributed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the Korean Space Weather Center K-index Watches are issued when the highest predicted NOAA estimated Kp-indices for a day are K = 5, 6, 7, or >= 8 and is reported in terms of the NOAA G scale. K-index Warnings are issued when NOAA estimated Kp-indices of 4, 5, 6, and 7 or greater are expected. K-index Alerts are issued when the NOAA estimated Kp-indices reach 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.


More info
Data source: NOAA, Wikipedia

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